Breaking News

Movement and Repair of Broken Bones | Knowledge Facts

Movement of Bones

The majority of muscle tissues in your body is  skeletal muscles.The skeletal muscles produce movements  by pulling on tendons through cords of connective  tissues the anchor muscle to the bones.The tendons then pulls on bones.Most muscle pass across a joint  and are attached to the bones that form joints.When such a muscle contract,it draws one bone towards or away from the bone with which it articulates.There are 650 Muscles in human body,most of which occur in pairs.At joint,these muscles work against each other by contraction.The relationship is called antagonistic.

Examples

The best example is the movement of elbow joint by biceps and triceps.The biceps bend s the ar at the elbow joint, and triceps straightens it.The biceps branchii muscle arises by the two heads from scapula and is inserted into the medical surface of the radius bone.
Simply,When biceps contract then triceps relaxed and when triceps bend then biceps relaxed.

Movement of Broken bones

Repair of Broken Brains

Despite remarkable strength,the bones may break.During Youth,most fractures result from trauma that may twist or break the bones such as sport injuries,automobile accidents,falls etc.In old age,bones become thin and weak and hence fractures occur more frequently.
To reduce the distance between the broken ends of bone,A fracture is treated  by reduction followed by realignment of the broken bone ends.
There are two types of reduction;closed and open reduction.

In closed reduction the bone end is coaxed back to their normal position by physician's hand.
In open reduction surgery is performed and  the bone ends are secured together with pins or wires.After broken bone is reduced,It is immobilized by a cast or by traction to allow the healing process of begin.Healing time is 8-12 weeks,but it is much longer for large weight bearing bones and bones for elderly people because of their proper blood regulation

Repairing process of bones

Hematoma Formation;                  

When a bone breaks,the blood vessels in the bone itself and perhaps in surrounding  are torn resulting hemorhage. As a result of hematoma, a  mass of clotted blood,forms at fracture site.Soon after,bone cell deprived of food begin to die and the tissues at the fracture site becomes swollen and hence painful.

Callus Formation;

Next soft  callus begins to form form in 3-4 weeks .Capillaries grow into hematoma and clear up the debris.Fibroblasts and osteoblasts migrate into the fracture site and begin to construct bone.

Bony Callus Formation;

Osteoblasts and osteoclasts continue to migrate  inward,multiply rapidly and gradually convert the soft callus into bony callus.Bone formation begin 3-4 weeks after injury and continues a firm bonby union is formed within 2-3 months later.

Remodeling;

After several months bony callus is remodeled by the excess material on the outside of the bone.Final structure of remodeled area  resembles that of the original unbroken bone  because it responds to the same set mechanical stimulai.
'; (function() { var dsq = document.createElement('script'); dsq.type = 'text/javascript'; dsq.async = true; dsq.src = '//' + disqus_shortname + '.disqus.com/embed.js'; (document.getElementsByTagName('head')[0] || document.getElementsByTagName('body')[0]).appendChild(dsq); })();